MAP Insights: COP28 Review

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The 28th UN Climate Change Conference (COP28) produced a deal on fossil fuels, but claims of historic progress are inflated. The commitments are weaker than most negotiators had sought. The outcome is unlikely to translate into more meaningful climate action in the near term.

The UAE successfully shepherded an agreement on the promised loss-and-damage fund, though key details remain outstanding regarding the fund’s operationalization.

Several other secular trends emerged, including China and India’s aversion to side deals that now dominate COPs, rising tensions between climate and trade policies and COP’s growing platform for business and civil society.

Geopolitics shaped COP28 more than any previous UN climate conference — most notably delaying the selection of next year’s host, Azerbaijan — and will continue to influence climate talks.

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